Permaculture
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
The word permaculture, coined by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s, is a portmanteau of permanent agriculture as well as permanent culture. Through a series of publications, Mollison, Holmgren and their associates documented an approach to designing human settlements, in particular the development of perennial agricultural systems that mimic the structure and interrelationship found in natural ecologies.

樸門定義 (資料來源 wikipedia線上百科)

Permaculture這個字是在七十年代由澳洲人Bill MollisonDavid Holmgren所創,這個字結合了永續農業與永續文化兩個詞意。透過一連串的出版品,他們兩位與夥伴們一塊紀錄了人群聚落的設計,尤其是在發展多年生的農業系統方面,這個系統呈現了整個自然生態中所發現的結構與交互作用。


Permaculture design principles extend from the position that "The only ethical decision is to take responsibility for our own existence and that of our children" (Mollison, 1990). The intent was that, by rapidly training individuals in a core set of design principles, those individuals could design their own environments and build increasingly self-sufficient human settlements — ones that reduce society's reliance on industrial systems of production and distribution that Mollison identified as fundamentally and systematically destroying the Earth's ecosystems.

樸門設計理念是從「唯一的倫理抉擇繫於為自我的存在乃至於我們的孩子們負起責任」(引自Mollison, 1990) 所延伸出來的,內在意涵是利用一套設計法則來訓練個人,讓這些人能自行設計他們週遭的環境,建立自給自足的人類聚落,這些聚落能降低對工業系統的社會體制、以及那些從根本上破壞地球生態系統的東西的依賴。


While originating as an agro-ecological design theory, permaculture has developed a large international following of individuals who have received training through intensive two week long 'permaculture design courses'. This 'permaculture community' continues to expand on the original teachings of Mollison and his associates, integrating a range of ideas of alternative culture, through a network of training, publications, permaculture gardens, and internet forums. In this way permaculture has become both a design system and a loosely defined philosophy or lifestyle ethic.

肇基自農業生態設計理論,樸門已經培養了大批國際間的追隨者接受密集的兩星期樸門設計課程,這群樸門愛好者在Mollison和夥伴的門生教學下仍持續增加,透過訓練、出版品、樸門花園和網路論壇的網絡,融合了各區域文化的想法。使得樸門成為一門設計系統的同時,也發展成一不甚嚴謹的哲學觀或是生活方式。


History
In the mid 1970s, Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren started to develop ideas that they hoped could be used to create stable agricultural systems. This was a result of their perception of a rapidly growing use of destructive industrial-agricultural methods. They saw that these methods were poisoning the land and water, reducing biodiversity, and removing billions of tons of soil from previously fertile landscapes. A design approach called "permaculture" was their response and was first made public with the publication of Permaculture One in 1978.

歷史

1970年代中期,澳洲人Bill MollisonDavid Holmgren希望能夠創造穩定的農業體系因而開始發展這些想法,為的就是希望能夠改變那些成長迅速、破壞性強的工農準則。他們所見的是這些東西正在毒害我們的土地和水資源、減少生物種類,大量的泥土從以往肥沃的土地景觀中流失。因此他們發展出「樸門」理念,並首度發表在1978年出版的《Permaculture One》一書中。


The term permaculture initially meant "permanent agriculture" but was quickly expanded to also stand for "permanent culture" as it was seen that social aspects were an integral part of a truly sustainable system. Mollison and Holmgren are widely considered to be the co-originators of the modern permaculture concept.
樸門一詞的濫觴是指永續農業,但很快地擴增到永續文化上,在他們看來社會層面乃是真實的永續系統中的一部分。MollisonHolmgren是公認的現代樸門理念的起始者。


Observation develops design ie. Termite mounds inspiration for passive climate control in modern housing Illustrator: A Sampson-Kelly

觀察培養設計,例如白蟻丘的觀察刺激出現代房屋中的被動式氣候控制 ( 插畫: A Sampson-Kelly )


After the publication of Permaculture One, Mollison and Holmgren further refined and developed their ideas by designing hundreds of permaculture sites and organizing this information into more detailed books. Mollison lectured in over 80 countries and his two-week Design Course was taught to many hundreds of students. By the early 1980s, the concept had moved on from being predominantly about the design of agricultural systems towards being a more fully holistic design process for creating sustainable human habitats.

Permaculture One》一書出版後,MollisonHolmgren更進一步提升,針對許許多多樸門區塊提出他們的設計理念,將之組織後放更多到書裡面。Mollison在超過八十個國家演講,他的兩週設計課程更教授了無數的學生。在1980年代中期,樸門理念不斷成長,從之前的部分主導農業體系的設計進階到全面性的設計過程,創造永續的人類居住空間。


By the mid 1980s, many of the students had become successful practitioners and had themselves begun teaching the techniques they had learned. In a short period of time permaculture groups, projects, associations, and institutes were established in over one hundred countries. In 1991 a four-part Television documentary by ABC productions called 'The Global Gardener' showed permaculture applied to a range of world-wide situations, bringing the concept to a much broader public. Excerpts are available online through YouTube. Permaculture has developed from its origins in
Australia into an international 'movement'. English permaculture teacher Patrick Whitefield, author of The Earth Care Manual and Permaculture in a Nutshell, suggests that there are now two strands of permaculture: a) Original and b) Design permaculture. Original permaculture attempts to closely replicate nature by developing edible ecosystems which closely resemble their wild counterparts. Design permaculture takes the working connections at use in an ecosystem and uses them as its basis. The end result may not look as "natural" as a forest garden, but still has an underlying design based on ecological principles. Through close observation of natural energies and flow patterns efficient design systems can be developed. This has become known as Natural Systems Design. (Dr. M Millington and A Sampson-Kelly)
1980
年代中期,他們成功地培養了一群學生,開始從事樸門技術教學,短期內樸門族群、計畫、組織、教學中心等在超過一百個國家如雨後春筍般冒出。1991年由ABC製作的電視紀錄片「全球園丁」播出了樸門在世界各地不同環境的應用情形,把這個理念傳送給了更多大眾,在Youtube線上都能搜尋得到。樸門從源頭澳洲發展到全球運動。英語樸門講師Patrick Whitefield,也就是「關懷地球手冊與小處著眼的樸門」一書的作者,針對樸門兩種流派提出看法,一是原始的樸門,另一種是設計的樸門。原始的樸門在於發展出可行的生態系統,與野生動植物相類似來複製自然。設計樸門則拿生態系統中可用之關聯性,以之為設計的基礎所在,最後的結果也許看起來不像一座森林花園那麼自然,但其根本設計就是根據生態準則所做的。透過對天然能源的緊密觀察,有效率的設計系統流動模式是能夠發展出來的。這也就是我們所知的「天然系統設計」( Dr. M Millington and A Sampson-Kelly )


Elements of design
設計元素
Mature species on a keyline irrigation channel, 'Orana' Farm Temperate Victoria Australia, photographer: A Sampson-Kelly
成熟物種在水源灌溉渠道上的設計以溫帶的澳洲維多利亞州的「Orana」農場為例 ( 攝影者︰A Sampson-Kelly )


Permaculture principles draw heavily on the practical application of ecological theory to analyze the characteristics and potential relationships between design elements. Each element of a design is carefully analyzed in terms of its needs, outputs, and properties. For example a chicken needs water, moderated microclimate, food and other chickens, and produces meat, eggs, feathers and manure and can help break the soil. Design elements are then assembled in relation to one another so that the products of one element feed the needs of adjacent elements. Synergy between design elements is achieved while minimizing waste and the demand for human labour or energy. Exemplary permaculture designs evolve over time, and can become extremely complex mosaics of conventional and inventive cultural systems that produce a high density of food and materials with minimal input. While techniques and cultural systems are freely borrowed from organic agriculture, sustainable forestry, horticulture, agroforestry, and the land management systems of indigenous peoples, permaculture's fundamental contribution to the field of ecological design is the development of a concise set of broadly applicable organizing principles that can be transferred through a brief intensive training.
樸門的原則著重在生態理論的實際應用,用以分析設計元素間的特性及潛在關係。每一個設計的每一個元素不管在其需求、所產生的東西以及特有的屬性上都被仔細地分析,例如一隻雞需要水、溫和的微氣候和其他的雞,牠可以生產出肉、蛋、羽毛、糞便,也可以幫忙犁土。設計元素彼此放置在相生的空間,讓其中一個元素可以生產出另一個元素所需的東西。設計元素間相生相息期間也減少了廢物量以及對人力或能源的要求。示範性的樸門設計隨時間形成,可發展成全然複雜的多元模式,結合了傳統與創意的文化系統,以少量的投入生產出高密度的食物量和物質。當我們免費從原住民的有機農業、永續森林資源、園藝、農林業及土地管理系統借來了他們的技術和文化,樸門對於生態設計領域的根本貢獻就在於發展出一套有組織、可廣泛運用的發展原則,可透過一種簡潔密集的訓練傳達給大眾。

Modern permaculture
現代樸門
Modern permaculture is a system design tool. It is a way of
現代樸門乃是一種系統設計工具,它是以下種種的方法
1.looking at a whole system or problem;   1.
觀察整個系統或問題所在
2.observing how the parts relate;    2.
觀察彼此間的相關
3.planning to mend sick systems by applying ideas learnt from long-term sustainable working systems;   3.
根據長期的永續工作體系來計畫修復生病了的環節
4.seeing connections between key elements (parts).   4.
關鍵元素間的關聯性觀察
In permaculture, practitioners learn from the working systems of nature to plan to fix the damaged landscapes of human agricultural and city systems. This thinking applies to the design of a kitchen tool as easily to the re-design of a farm. Permaculture practicioners apply it to everything deemed necessary to build a sustainable future. Commonly, "Initiatives ... tend to evolve from strategies that focus on efficiency (for example, more accurate and controlled uses of inputs and minimisation of waste) to substitution (for example, from more to less disruptive interventions, such as from biocides to more specific biological controls and other more benign alternatives) to redesign — fundamental changes in the design and management of the operation (Hill & MacRae 1995, Hill et al 1999)." "Permaculture is about helping people make redesign choices: setting new goals and a shift in thinking that affects not only their home but their actions in the workplace, borrowings and investments" (A Sampson-Kelly and Michel Fanton 1991). Examples include the design and employment of complex transport solutions, optimum use of natural resources such as sunlight, and "radical design of information-rich, multi-storey polyculture systems" (Mollison & Slay 1991). "This progression generally involves a shift in the nature of one's dependence — from relying primarily on universal, purchased, imported, technology-based interventions to more specific locally available knowledge and skill-based ones. This usually eventually also involves fundamental shifts in world-views, senses of meaning, and associated lifestyles (Hill 1991)." "My experience is that although efficiency and substitution initiatives can make significant contributions to sustainability over the short term, much greater longer-term improvements can only be achieved by redesign strategies; and, furthermore, that steps need to be taken at the outset to ensure that efficiency and substitution strategies can serve as stepping stones and not barriers to redesign..." (Hill 2000)
在樸門領域裡,從事樸門的人從大自然的工作體系裡學習去規劃、修補人類在農業與城市中受傷了的土地景觀。這樣的思考簡單到像設計一件廚房工具一樣,適用於農田的再設計。這些從事樸門的人把它用在任何他們認為可以建立永續自然環境的事情上,一般來說,「 主動權在於從有效策略 ( 投入更多正確的、可控制的,更少垃圾產量 ) 發展到取代物的運用 ( 例如減少破壞性的干擾物,像利用特有的生物控制和其他良性替代品來取代殺蟲劑那些東西 )」,在設計中再設計出根本的改變與運作的管理方式 (Hill & MacRae 1995, Hill et al 1999)。樸門是幫助人們再設計的一門領域:重新設定新目標與思想的轉變,這思想不只是影響到他們的家,更擴及他們的工作環境、借入、投資等的行為層面。( A Sampson-Kelly and Michel Fanton 1991) 有許多例子比如像大眾運輸的設計和雇聘,自然資源如太陽光的最有效利用,具備多方資訊和多層栽培系統的基礎設計 (Mollison & Slay 1991) 此發展包羅了個體在大自然中所依賴的轉變從依賴統一的、購買的、進口的、科技取向的外來物到更多當地可取得的知識和技能,到後來通常包含了世界觀、意識和相關生活型態的根本轉變 ( Hill 1991)。 「我的經驗是即使具有效率和取替性的主動性,可在短期內達成重要的自給自足,但更長期的改善方法只有再設計策略的運用,以及在剛開始時提出循序漸進的步驟,確保有效和取代性的策略能一步一步進行,不會成為再設計的絆腳石。」( Hill 2000 )

 


Core values
核心價值
Permaculture is a broad-based and holistic approach that has many applications to all aspects of life. At the heart of permaculture design and practice is a fundamental set of 'core values' or ethics which remain constant whatever a person's situation, whether they are creating systems for town planning or trade; whether the land they care for is only a windowbox or an entire forest. These 'ethics' are often summarised as;

樸門是一門包羅廣泛且全面性的領域,可以運用在生活的各個層面,其設計實做的中心理念就是一套中心價值或是倫理觀,也就是保持一個人的狀態,不管他們在為城鎮規劃或是貿易創造系統或是他們關心的土地只是一小塊方土或是一整片森林,這些倫理觀通常被簡要成︰


Earthcare – recognising that the Earth is the source of all life (and is possibly itself a living entity- see Gaia theory) and that we recognise and respect that the Earth is our valuable home and we are a part of the Earth, not apart from it.

土地關懷認知到地球是生命的泉源 ( 它本身就是一個生命總體Gaia理論 ),我們任知並尊重地球是我們最珍貴的家,我們是地球的一份子,不是和它分開的。


Peoplecare – supporting and helping each other to change to ways of living that are not harming ourselves or the planet, and to develop healthy societies.

人類關懷彼此扶持與幫助,改變生活方式,不傷害我們自己和這個星球,發展健康的社會。


Fairshare (or placing limits on consumption) - ensuring that the Earth's limited resources are utilised in ways that are equitable and wise.
公平關懷(或是對消費行為的限制)—確保地球的有限資源是以公平有效的方式被利用。


Modern thought about permaculture began with the issue of sustainable food production. It started with the belief that for people to feed themselves sustainably they need to move away from reliance on industrialised agriculture. Where industrial farms use technology powered by fossil fuels (such as gasoline, diesel and natural gas), and each farm specialises in producing high yields of a single crop, permaculture stresses the value of low inputs and diverse crops. The model for this was an abundance of small scale market and home gardens for food production, and a main issue was food miles.

關於樸門的現代思想是從自足食物的生產議題開始的,剛開始的信念是人們要能自給自足的話需要從倚賴工業化的農業生產脫離開來,那些工業化農場使用大量石化原料啟動科技,例如石油、柴油引擎和天然瓦斯等,每一個農場都標榜單一物種的高產量,而樸門則是著重在低投入與多樣化農產的觀念上。這種的典範就是許多一些小規模的市場和食物生產的家庭花園的出現,而主要的議題放在食物里程數上。

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