在家就能用咖啡渣種植美味香菇

Growing Gourmet Mushrooms at Home from Waste Coffee Grounds

轉載:阿破翻譯,歡迎分享轉貼,請保留出處 https://pochentw.wordpress.com/2015/05/01/%e6%a8%b8%e9%96%80%e7%bf%bb%e8%ad%af%e5%9c%a8%e5%ae%b6%e5%b0%b1%e8%83%bd%e7%94%a8%e5%92%96%e5%95%a1%e6%b8%a3%e7%a8%ae%e6%a4%8d%e7%be%8e%e5%91%b3%e9%a6%99%e8%8f%87-growing-gourmet-mushrooms-at-home-f/

 

“Tried growing mushrooms before, and it didn’t work" – if I had money for every time someone has said that to me I’d be a very rich man…and probably no longer a mushroom farmer! Mushrooms are notoriously unreliable to grow, partly due to the mass-produced low quality kits that people often try. Almost mystical organisms, they seem to pop up in the wild in an unpredictable way, often only appearing for just 5 or 6 days before vanishing back into the ground again, not to be seen in the same spot for another year or three. Yet, despite a poor reputation amongst home growers, by using a particularly simple technique and getting a bit of insight into how mushrooms grow, it is possible to successfully grow your own gourmet mushrooms at home. So how exactly are mushrooms cultivated? How can you have success at home? And more to that point – what’s all this got to do with waste coffee grounds?

「我曾試過種香菇,但是都失敗了!」如果每次有人跟我說這句話我就能賺到錢,那我肯定是個有錢人,而且不會在是個香菇農夫。大家都知道香菇是很難生長的,部分是因為那些一般人會去嘗試使用的那些大量生產而且低品質的套裝組合。他們大部分都是神祕的生物,他們通常會在無法預期的時候出現,在消失於地底之前只會出現5~6天的時間,然後可能在明後幾年在相同的地方都不會看到他們。然而,即使在居家生產者之間有著很差的名聲,只要使用一個特殊又簡單的技術,還有知道一點香菇是如何生長的知識,就有可能在家裡成功生產香菇。所以到底香菇是如何種植的呢?到底在家如何才能成功?最重要的是,到底要如何用咖啡渣種香菇?

 

How Mushrooms Grow 香菇是如何長大的?

How to grow your own mushrooms

Firstly, you must understand the life cycle of a fungus. Similar to the fruits produced by a tree, mushrooms are the reproductive fruits of a dense, root-like network of cells, called ‘mycelium’. In the wild, this white network of fine threads grows out it all directions, breaking down its food into simpler molecules to further fuel its growth. When it runs out of food, or is put under some other form of environmental stress, it switches into survival mode and produces mushrooms in order to release its spores to the wind and find a better place to live. Fortunately for us humans, it’s possible to recreate and manage this life cycle, and by doing so you can nurture many a fine crop of mushrooms for the table!

Now, it must be said that growing your own mushrooms is definitely more difficult than growing nearly any other crop if you use the standard methods. Mushroom farming normally relies on significant pasteurisation equipment and climatic control. This can be hard to recreate at home without spending a fortune.

首先,你要先了解真菌的生命循環。跟一棵樹要生產水果很類似,香菇是一種菌絲體,一種濃密而且呈現根狀分布的繁殖體。在野外,這個白色的網絡細線,會四面八方的伸展出去,把它的食物分解成可能幫助他成長的養分。當食物吃光了,或者是面臨某種環境的壓力,她會開始轉換成[生存模式],然後開始產出香菇,那是為了要把她的孢子釋放到野外去,找一個更好的地方去生存。對我們人類來說,非常幸運地是,我們很可能能夠重新創造而且管理她的生命循環,而因此能夠在桌子上就能夠生產許多良好的作物。

現在,生產自己的香菇遠比你使用標準的方法去種植其他作物都還要困難。種植蘑菇正常來說都依賴特定的巴士德消毒(pasteurisation 巴士德消毒法)設備,還有氣候條件上的控制。因此除非花上一大筆錢,否則是在家裡是很難再製的。

 

Growing Oyster Mushrooms 生產蠔菇(又稱為 平菇)

Growing oyster mushrooms

The best advice for success is to start by growing Oyster mushrooms, the easiest and most forgiving variety for any home cultivator to grow. Next you must consider the growing medium. The most common materials to grow Oysters on are usually freshly cut hardwood logs or shredded straw. Growing mushrooms on logs can be quite hit or miss and will take up to a year for your first harvest. Growing on straw requires you to pasteurise the straw first, to kill off resident micro-organisms that will compete with your mycelium.

This is where coffee comes in. The beauty of growing mushrooms on fresh coffee waste is that the substrate is already pasteurised by the coffee brewing process, so you can bypass the whole pasteurising step and get straight into the inoculating. Plus, spent coffee grounds are a huge waste resource, and are packed full of nutrients which your Oyster Mushrooms love to grow on.

要成功最棒的建議就是開始種植平菇(蠔菇 Oyster mushrooms),他們是最簡單能夠生產,也是最能夠容忍任何家庭氣候的菇類。下一步,你必須先考慮生長介質。最常見用來生產平菇的通常是剛砍下來的硬木頭或者是稻草梗。在木頭上生產香菇很可能會豐收或者一無所成,而且必須花上一年的時間才有第一次的收成。在稻梗上生產必須先對稻草梗做巴士德消毒,必須殺掉稻梗上面那些可能會跟菌絲體競爭的微生物。

然後這就是為什麼需要咖啡了。在新鮮咖啡渣上面能夠長出很美麗的香菇,因為這些咖啡渣在蒸煮的過程中已經高溫殺菌,所以你可以直接跳過整個巴士德殺菌流程,然後進入接種的階段。順帶一提,咖啡渣是一項非常巨大的廢棄資源,而且包含了平菇所需要的完整的營養成分。

 

Inoculating  接種

Tips for growing mushrooms

Firstly order your spawn in. You’ll have greater success if you use a high spawn: coffee grounds ratio. To begin with, I’d recommend using around 500g of oyster mushroom spawn to each 2.5kg of spent grounds. If the vendor you purchase the spawn from also sells filter patch grow bags, get one of these too. They will increase your chance of success by reducing contamination and providing the perfect growing environment inside the bag. If you can’t source one of these, you can try using a large 2 litre freezer bag, empty ice-cream tub or milk carton – cleaned out well, and with 4 x 5mm holes cut in the sides.

首先,先採購菌種。如果你使用咖啡渣來種植菌絲,那很可能會有巨大的收穫。剛開始,我建議使用500g的平菇菌絲對2.5kg的咖啡渣。如果你買菌種的廠商也有賣專用的生產袋,可以買一些回來使用。他們會因為減少被污染的機會而增加成功的機率,而且在袋子裡頭會提供完美的生長環境。如果你買不到這種袋子,你可以試著使用一個大的2L的冰凍袋、空的冰淇淋盒子或者牛奶盒,然後再旁邊搓出許多4x5mm的小洞。

 

Coffee collection 收集咖啡

Go to a busy café and ask them nicely if they can give you some spent grounds. You’ll need enough to fill the bag or container you’re using two-thirds full, and the grounds need to be fresh that day. Most cafes will be happy to do this – if you encounter any problems, just ask at another one. Large cafes get through kilos of the stuff every day, and most are happy to see it going to good use. Take it home and (within 24 hours whilst it’s still fresh) weigh out 2.5kg of coffee into a clean mixing bowl.

Wash your hands and lower arms well and mix your spawn into the bowl, breaking it up and distributing it evenly throughout the coffee. Now load the mixture into your cultivation bag or container and close it up tight, ensuring you have cut the 4 air holes if you are not using the filter patch bags.

找一間生意很好的咖啡店,詢問他們能不能給你一些咖啡渣。你可能需要把袋子或是容器裝到2/3滿,而且咖啡渣最好是當天新鮮的。大部分的咖啡店通常很樂意給予。大型的咖啡店每天可能都會產生好幾公斤的咖啡渣,因此都很樂意能夠被好好使用。盡量在24小時內使用,帶回家之然後量出2.5KG的咖啡渣然後放進一個乾淨的混合碗當中。

把手洗乾淨,然後把菌絲混入碗中,然後把他們均勻會合。現在把這些混合的東西放進準備好的培植袋/容器裡頭,然後綁緊他們,如果沒有使用專用的培植袋的話,必須確保你有保留四個空氣流通的孔洞~

 

Spawn run 開始走菌

watching your mushrooms grow

Place your bag/container in a warm (64 – 77°F, 18C – 25°C) and dark place (airing cupboard, under a bed, in a cupboard in a heated room etc). During the next three weeks, you will see the spawn come to life and grow across the coffee grounds – turning the whole mixture white by the time it has fully colonised the mixture. It’s a fun time to keep checking up on it and watch it grow from day to day.

把袋子/容易放在一個溫暖(18~25度C)、陰暗的地方(通風的櫥櫃、床底下、有暖氣的櫥櫃裡頭)。大約經過三個星期,你會看到菌絲開始生長,然後把整個咖啡渣都長滿白色的菌絲,直到她佔據整個容器為止。在這段時間是最有趣的時候,每天都可以看他成長。

 

Fruiting 收成

After 3 weeks, your whole bag/container of the coffee and spawn mixture should now look completely white. If you see any areas of green, this is a competitor mould. If it is just a small patch, you can try adding a little salt to the area which should kill it off and still allow the mushroom mycelium to prosper. If the whole bag has gone green, then I’m afraid it’s a lost cause and will most likely be caused by poor quality spawn, or by a lot of mould spores having been mixed in with the coffee grounds somewhere along the way. However, if you have used a high rate of spawn, fresh spent grounds and followed clean hygiene, the chances are you will be looking at a nice white bag of mycelium ready to fruit you some home grown mushrooms.

Place it in a spot with plenty of fresh air and a little light – a shaded windowsill or worktop is ideal. Cut a 5cm x 5cm (2in x 2in) hole in your bag/container and spray this area twice daily with water, trying not to allow it to dry out. Mushrooms love damp, humid conditions, and they will outright refuse to grow if it’s too dry.

大約三週之後,你的整個裝滿咖啡渣與菌絲體的袋子/容器應該會整個看起來都是白色的。如果你看到任何區域是綠色的,那就是一個跟菌絲體競爭的黴菌。如果只是一小部分,你可以試著加一點鹽到這個區域,有可能可以殺死他們,然後還能讓菌絲體繼續繁殖下去。如果整個袋子都變成綠色的,那很可能就是種植失敗了,很有可能是因為菌絲的品質部好,或者是咖啡渣裡頭有許多黴菌。不過,如果你是使用高品質的菌絲、新鮮的基質以及維持乾淨的環境,你看到一個完美的白色袋子的機率是很高的,接著,你就能夠準備採收香菇了。

接下來把袋子放在有新鮮空氣而且還有一點光線的地方,有遮蔽的窗戶或者工作台上面都是很理想的。接下來在袋子或容器上切一個5×5公分的洞,,然後一天噴兩次水,試著不要讓它乾掉。香菇喜歡潮溼、濕熱的環境,如果太乾他們是不會生長的。

watching your mushrooms grow

After a week or so, you will start to see tiny little mushrooms bursting into life. Over the following 5-7 days they will double in size every day. This is a really fascinating time! Each day you wake up to find them larger; looking more and more meaty and ready for the eating. When the edge of the caps begin to turn upwards, it’s time to harvest and enjoy the fruits of your labour. Cut at the base of the stems and get cooking!

大約一週過後,你就會開始看到一些小的香菇開始生長了。大約經過5~7天,他們就會每天以倍數成長。這也是最令人興奮的時候,每一天你起床都會看到他們越來越大,看著他們越來越厚實,準備可以實用了。當香菇的邊邊開始往上翻的時候,就是可以採收的時候了,然後享受你過去辛苦勞動換來的甜美果實。把他們從柄的地方切下來,就可以開始烹調了。

We’re grateful to Adam Sayner of Fungi Futures for sharing his fantastic method of growing mushrooms on coffee waste with our readers. If you’d like to save yourself the trouble of collecting coffee waste and inoculating the mixture, Adam sells ready-made kits on his website (www.fungi-futures.co.uk). We’ve used them ourselves and can definitely recommend them – unlike most mushroom growing kits they really work! If you are based in the US you might wish to check out Fungi Perfecti (http://www.fungi.com) for spawn.

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