原文:http://www.1001pallets.com/pallet-safety/

With an estimated 2 billion pallets being used every day, and many more sitting around, no wonder so many projects have been done using pallets. At 1001Pallets, we present you 1001 ways to recycle, upcycle, reuse or repurpose wooden pallets! But many of you have questions about pallet’s safety and if the pallets they found are safe to use or not.

每天幾乎都有二十億個棧板被使用,在我們的周遭就有許多計畫是用棧板完成的。在1001棧板網,我們像您展示了1001種回收、再製、重製、或是許多不同用處的木頭棧板方式。但是大家對於棧板的安全性都有許多疑慮,因為不知道棧板是不是能夠安全的使用?

We tried to summarize the information we found. The first issue is to be careful of what has spilled on the pallet! If there are any spills on it, either oil, food or unknown substances, you should not use this pallet. It is much safer to use only clean ones and not try to identify what might be on your pallet.

我們嚐試著整理我們得到的資訊。第一件要注意的事情就是棧板上的東西,如果棧板上曾經被潑灑任何東西,不管是油、食物、或者不可辨認的液體,那最好不要使用這塊棧板。使用一塊乾淨的棧板是比較安全的,而且別嘗試著去辨認棧板上的神祕物質。

For the clean ones here is what we can tell you : 如果是乾淨的棧板,那就能聽聽我的建議:

WHEN THERE IS NO STAMP OR MARK ON THE PALLET?

如果棧板上找不到任何郵戳或者標記,該怎麼辦??

It means that it’s a “national pallet” that is used for domestic transport (wherever you are located)! Most of them are not treated with chemicals, so can be totally safe. But you may still be careful. I know people who use these pallets safely but it’s better if you can trace where they come from.

這表示這是「國內棧板」,是用於國內運輸(根據你的所在地)。他們大部分都沒有使用化學方式來處理,所以基本上是安全可用的。但是你還是要小心一點,如果能知道這些棧板從何而來的話,還是會安全一點。

FOR INTERNATIONAL PALLETS  國際使用的棧板

IPPC-logo

There are 2 main things to watch for on the stamp :

在郵戳上主要有兩件事情要特別注意

  1. The IPPC Logo: if you don’t see it, don’t use it! Even if a pallet may be perfectly safe without this logo it could also mean that it was treated with chemicals!
  2. The treatment code : [HT] = Heat treatment / [MB] = Methyl Bromide / [DB] = Debarked / [KD] = Kiln Dried.

1. IPPC 符號:如果沒看到這個字樣,千萬別使用它。如果沒有這個符號表是可能是使用化學方式處理。

2. 處理方式代碼:[HT]=加熱處理,[MB]=溴化甲烷處理,[DB]=木材剝皮處理,[KD]=窯乾法(使用窯來烘烤乾燥棧板)

The IPPC logo is for the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) pallets that are used and shipped internationally. These pallets are required to be made of material that will not carry invasive insect species or plant disease through different countries. In order to meet the IPPC standards, a pallet can not be made of raw wood that has not been treated, in other terms, all pallets are treated. These pallets must be treated by one of the following methods, and the treatment will be under the supervision of an official agency approved to do this. Without this stamp, the pallet may be safe or not, so you should only use pallets whose source can be traced for a safely use.

IPPC符號是「國際植物保護公約」用來標記使用在國際性運輸的棧板。這些棧板的成分必須確保沒有攜帶不同國家的任何具侵略性的昆蟲物種或是植物病蟲害。為了達到IPPC的標準,棧板不能使用未經處理的原木所製成,也就是說所有的棧板都經過處理。這些棧板必須使用以下這些方法來處理,而這些處理過程都必須在官方的組織監視下完成。如果沒有這個戳章,這棧板可能不安全,所以你只能使用那些來源安全的棧板。

[HT]: Wooden pallets manufactured in Canada or the US undergo a pest control treatment called heat treating (HT) which involves heating the pallet to minimum core temperature of 56°C for softwoods and 60°C for hardwoods for a minimum of 30 minutes in a kiln.  HT pallets are not harmful to your health.

[HT]:在加拿大與美國的木製棧板公司都是使用加熱處理法(HT),過程中必須讓棧板的核心溫度超過56度c(軟木)、60度c(硬木),在窯爐內的時間至少超過三十分鐘。所以有經過HT處理法的棧板對於健康是無害的。

[KD]: The purpose of kiln-dried lumber is to reduce the moisture content of the wood (19% or less).  This is a means to control warping, fungal growth and other quality features. The kilns or “ovens” the lumber is put into, doesn’t necessarily reach the sustained temperature of 133 degrees Fahrenheit (56 Celsius) that would qualify as heat treated.  Many lumber mills are processing their lumber to meet the heat treatment requirements thus you will see “KD-HT” incorporated in the lumber grade stamp. With cherry and oak wood, it’s important to note that at this temperature sap will be released from within the wood. The sap will coat the wood with a dark stain, making the pallets or crates appear old and worn. In fact, the pallets and crates may actually be quite new and their strength or durability has not been compromised in any way by the HT process. KD pallets are not harmful to your health.

[KD]:窯烤木柴的主要目的是要減少木材的水份(小於19%)。這是一個能夠控制變形、真菌生長和其他品質的方法。使用窯或爐子來乾燥木頭並不需要達到一個持續的溫度56度C(133度F)。很多木材工廠會使用一種「KD-HT」的加熱方法,若是櫻桃木或是橡木,在這個溫度加熱下會有汁液跑出來,而這個汁液會在木頭外頭染上一層深色的色斑,會讓棧板看起來比較老舊。但事實上,這些棧板可能都是全新的而且木頭的強度與耐用性並不會因為使用HT製程而有所損傷。KD棧板對健康是無害的。

Note: 2013-13 CPM-8 adopted revised Annex 1 to ISPM 15 to include heat treatment using dielectric heating. When lumber or used, previously assembled, repaired or remanufactured wood packaging material is heat treated using dielectric heating the treatment code mark shall be DH.

[MB]: Methyl-bromide fumigation, this is a powerful pesticide (that has been linked to human health problems and ozone layer depletion) used to treat the wood to kill off invasive species like pine beetles.  This type of treatment is banned in Canada and in a lot of countries because it poses a health risk to workers handling the pallets. But, you can still find it in some places. If you find a MB pallet, please do not use it for your craft projects or as firewood, find a waste-removal company who can dispose of it properly.

[MB]:溴化甲烷煙燻法,這是一種強力的殺蟲劑(會導致人類健康問題以及臭氧層破洞),可用來殺死類似松木甲蟲的侵入行物種。這類處理方式的棧板在加拿大與多數的國家是被禁止的,因為使用這些棧板很可能有健康危機。但是你在某些地方仍然可以找到這些棧板。所以如果你發現棧板上有MB字樣,請不要將他用來製作工藝品或當柴燒,找一家廢棄物處理公司就能夠妥善的處理它們。

[DB]: These two letters means the pallet was debarked, and many pallets have this stamp. Concretely, this means that the wood was debarked under IPPC regulations, but it does not matter if your pallet does not have this stamp as many of them do not have it. This stamp will not give you any indications for your safety, you should only check for the three codes above: HT, KD or MB.

[DB]:去樹皮處理,而且很多棧板都有這個戳記。具體來說這表示這塊木頭是在IPPC的規範下出口的,但是如果棧板上沒有DB字樣是沒關係的。這個字樣是沒法提供你去判斷棧板是否安全的,所以應該尋找其他三個字樣:HT/ KD/ MB

Sometimes you could see also the letters [PRL], it means that the pallet was verified by the Package Research Laboratory (PRL). 有時候你會看到「PRL」的字樣,這表示這棧板是被「包裹研究實驗室(PRL)」所認可的。

Here is an example:

ippc

This pallet was made in Slovenia (SI) by the supplier 341220, the pallet was Heat Treated (HT) and debarked (DB). The Pallet was made in July 2011. This pallet is safe to use. For international country code, visit ISO website.

The supplier number is a unique number (000) assigned by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO).

這展版是在斯洛維尼亞製造的,供應商編號 341220,這棧板有經過加熱處理(HT)而且已經出口過。這棧板是2011年的七月所製造,這棧板是安全的。

IPPC Stamp (fumigated)

This pallet was made in China (CN) by the supplier 003, the pallet was treated by fumigation with Methyl-bromide (MB) and debarked (DB). The pallet was made in 2012. Don’t use this one, this pallet is not safe!

這棧板是中國製造,供應商003,這棧板使用溴化甲烷煙燻法來處理的。2012年製造。別使用這塊棧板,這不安全。

FOR EUROPE

ippc-eur-epal

It’s basically the same thing but sometimes there are no other stamp than EPAL or EUR.  You should choose the one with EPAL. The one marked with EUR comes from an old system managed by railways companies. If they are EPAL approved too, then it’s OK! They are just heat treated (HT) the same way as described above. Europe does not allow chemical treatments. They are able to carry 1500kg.

有時候展版上只會有EPAL或EUR的字樣而找不到其他字樣。你應該選擇有EPAL字樣的棧板。而如果是EUR字樣的棧板則是來自於鐵路公司所管理的老久系統。如果他也有EPAL字樣的認證,那棧板是可以使用的。它們同樣經過HT處理法。歐洲是不允許化學處理法的。它們能夠耐重1500公斤。

You may find also pallets without any sign. They are made to be used a single time. The most robust are the one used for building materials (bricks, cement, etc…). They are not treated with chemicals and can be easily reused. Many people ask as where to find pallets! You may go to your nearest DIY store (or materials store).

你也可能在棧板上找不到任何符號。它們使用來做一次性使用的。最堅固的棧板是用來載建築材料的(例如:磚塊、水泥),它們不是用化學方式來處理,也可以很容易重複使用它們。很多人問我們要去哪邊找這些棧板,我想你可以去附近的DIY店家(或是建築材料杭)詢問。

WHAT ABOUT COLORED PALLETS? 那有顏色的棧板呢?

Pallets usually last 4 to 5 years. 8 to 10 when they are the property of a renting company. Colored pallets are usually from these companies. 棧板一般能撐上4~5年,但是如果是租賃公司所使用則可用上8~10年,有顏色的棧板大多來自這些公司。

ippc-red-blue

  • Red pallets : pool LPR,
  • Blue pallets : pool CHEP,
  • Brown pallets : pool IPP.

I do not advise to use them specially for indoor use. You may find traces of formaldehyde and other resins used in the composite blocks.

我通常不建立使用它們,特別是用在室內。你通常可以看到甲醛或者樹脂的使用痕跡。

Also, you have to keep in mind that pallets are often used for international shipping and while most countries use an NPPO/IPPC code, not all countries is doing it and such countries may not comply with the international standards.

你要記住的是,棧板通常用於國際船運,而大多數的國家使用NPPO/IPPC的代號,但也不是所有國家都遵守這個國際標準。

If you follow these advices and don’t use unknown pallets as a food cutting board or a headboard or anything used in your house and near you, you should be safe to use pallets for your projects.

如果你聽從這些建議,而不使用來路不明的棧板用於食物切割版、床頭版、用於家裡或你附近的空間,一般來說使用棧板是沒問題的。

Take into consideration that like for any works involving cutting or sanding wood, you should always use a mask to keep you from breathing in particles and pollutants.

當你在切割或者拋光這些木頭的時候,記得要帶上口罩讓你遠離灰塵與污染。

To be safe, one of the most important thing to remember is that when you cannot establish if the pallet you have is safe or not, DO NOT USE IT for indoor projects such as headboardcoffee table or other kind offurniture unless they came from a trusted source. In this case, only use it for outdoor projects where you will not be in contact with the pallet too often and avoid growing food on or near used pallet wood. For the health of you, your family and the planet, never burn pallet wood or treated lumber in your fireplace.

為了確保安全,最重要必須得記住的事情就是如果沒法確保這些棧板是安全的,就別使用在室內,例如床頭版、咖啡桌或者任何形狀的家具。在這種情況下,棧板可用於室外,只要確保你不會太常接觸這些棧板,也不會在上面種植食物。為了你的健康、家人與地球的健康,絕對不要把棧板拿去當柴薪燒。

Some links:

That’s it, now you have all the necessary information to start you pallet quest ! If you have more information’s, pleasecontact us and we will update this page !

And, if you want to learn more about pallets, do not hesitate to read our article on the history of pallets and how they play an important role in the history of our economy.

Need information’s on pallet sizes around the world? We’ve made an article on this also!

And if you need some tips and places where to find pallets, visit our page that will gives you some advice and some places shared by our readers.

還有一篇也值得看:http://www.fix.com/blog/preparing-wood-pallets-for-upcycling/

可直接看圖的結論:HT,DB,EPAL都可以使用,EUR必須在加上EPAL才能使用。 MB與彩色棧板都不要用。

Source: Fix.com

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